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Sondaż: Co Polacy wiedzą o marihuanie?

Co Polacy wiedzą o narkotykach? Jak się okazuje, niewiele. Szczególnie o marihuanie. Na przykład prawie połowa ankietowanych w sondażu TNS Polska jest przekonana, że posiadanie skręta jest legalne.

Z analizy sondażu wynika też, że niewiele wiemy o prawie dotyczącym narkotyków i o samych narkotykach, ale uważamy je za zagrożenie I jesteśmy za utrzymaniem dzisiejszych przepisów, czyli pełnej prohibicji.

Aż 75 proc. badanych uważa, że prawo powinno zakazywać używania i posiadania wszelkich narkotyków. Tak już jest od 2000 r., choć od roku prokuratura może nie wszczynać postępowania przeciwko osobie, która ma nieznaczną ilość narkotyku na własny użytek i karanie jej byłoby niecelowe.

19 proc. za legalną marihuaną

Tylko 2 proc. jest za tym, by używanie i posiadanie narkotyków zalegalizować. Natomiast za pomysłem, by zakazane było używanie i posiadanie tylko twardych narkotyków – jak heroina czy kokaina, i by zalegalizować posiadanie i używanie „miękkich” (np. marihuany) – jest 19 proc. (4 proc. nie ma zdania).

Prof. Ireneusz Krzemiński, socjolog: – Widać, że stosunek do tzw. miękkich narkotyków ulega zmianie. W badaniu z 2008 r., które robiliśmy dla UNGDP (ONZ-owskiej organizacji kształtującej politykę wobec narkotyków), opowiedziało się za tym 15 proc. ankietowanych Polaków, teraz w badaniu „Gazety” – to już 19 proc.

Nie jest zaskoczony wynikiem badania także prof. Krzysztof Krajewski, kryminolog, współautor nowelizacji wprowadzającej możliwość rezygnacji ze ścigania za niewielką ilość narkotyku: – Postawy społeczne wobec postulatu legalizacji wszelkich narkotyków są jednoznacznie negatywne. To znaczy, że podejmowanie działań na rzecz całkowitej legalizacji narkotyków nie może liczyć na poparcie społeczne. Co, oczywiście, nie przesądza o słuszności samego postulatu.

Co wiemy o prawie narkotykowym? Niewiele!

Stan wiedzy jest fatalny. Tylko 52 proc. badanych wie, że posiadanie „skręta” marihuany jest przestępstwem. Aż 43 proc. uważa, że to legalne. Zdaniem prof. Krajewskiego pytanie mogło być dla respondentów niejasne: – Trudno uwierzyć, żeby świadomość prawna Polaków była aż tak niska po 12 latach łapania po ulicach posiadaczy jednego skręta.

Okazało się też, że 73 proc. badanych uważa, że więzienie za posiadanie „skręta” jest karą zbyt surową. Jednak 21 proc. badanych uważa więzienie za skręta za karę „sprawiedliwą„. – Polacy są uważani za społeczeństwo rygorystyczne i skore do karania. W tych badaniach przedstawiają się racjonalnie: aż trzy czwarte uważa, że więzienie to przesada. Ale nie wiem jak odpowiedzieliby na pytanie, czy zamiast więzienia nie należy palaczy marihuany przymusowo leczyć w zamkniętym zakładzie. Badania prowadzone w Polsce, jeszcze w PRL-u, pokazały, że Polacy mają tendencję do „medykalizacji” rozmaitych kontrowersyjnych zachowań, w tym używania narkotyków. Tymczasem przymusowe leczenie może być bardziej opresyjne niż kara więzienia – dodaje prof. Krajewski.

Jednak mniej za karaniem

Prof. Krzemiński porównuje wyniki badania TNS Polska i własne, z 2008 r. – Wyszło nam wtedy, że 18 proc. badanych jest za karaniem więzieniem dilerów narkotykowych. Jeśli chodzi o „posiadaczy”, to 16 proc. było za działaniami edukacyjnymi i – tam, gdzie jest taka potrzeba – za leczeniem. Widać więc, że w Polsce kształtuje się atmosfera społeczna, która może sprzyjać nowej strategii narkotykowej. Strategii polegającej na znacznym ograniczeniu karania za użytkowanie narkotyków, szczególnie marihuany i podobnych. I na rozbudowie działań, które zapobiegają popadnięciu w nałóg, leczą i rehabilitują.

Marihuana bardziej szkodzi niż alkohol

Rozkład odpowiedzi na pytanie: „Czy w porównaniu z alkoholem marihuana jest tak samo, bardziej czy mniej szkodliwa” może zadziwić. Aż 40 proc. badanych uważa ją za bardziej szkodliwą. I to mimo widocznych gołym okiem destrukcyjnych społecznych i zdrowotnych skutków i alkoholizmu jak i nadużywania alkoholu. I mimo licznych wypowiedzi ekspertów, w tym lekarzy, o znikomej zdrowotnej szkodliwości marihuany.

Aż 31 proc. uważa, że marihuana jest tak samo szkodliwa jak alkohol, zaś tylko 13 proc., że jest mniej szkodliwa. 16 proc. odpowiedziało: „trudno powiedzieć„.

Zdaniem prof. Krzemińskiego, być może respondenci podzielają opinię, że używanie miękkich narkotyków w znaczącym procencie przypadków prowadzi do używania twardych.

Natomiast prof. Krajewski uważa, że trudno się ludziom dziwić, skoro sami naukowcy się spierają: – Nie wybrałbym odpowiedzi, że marihuana bardziej szkodzi niż alkohol, ale wahałbym się pomiędzy odpowiedzią, że szkodzi mniej lub tak samo – mówi.

Badanie TNS Polska, zrealizowane 16-17 października; wywiady telefoniczne; próba losowa 502 dorosłych osób z całej Polski; błąd statystyczny +/-4,4 proc.

via: Wyborcza.pl



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