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Projekt nowelizacja ustawy narkotykowej

Czy Ewa Kopacz skieruje ją na obrady Sejmu, czy zamrozi na dłużej? Jak przekonać posłów i opinię publiczną?

Projekt nowelizacji podpisało 15 posłów – poinformował Michał Kabaciński z Ruchu Palikota, przewodniczący parlamentarnego zespołu ds. racjonalnej polityki przeciwdziałania narkomanii. Słuchało go ośmiu posłów z RP, spośród dziewięciu, którzy projekt podpisali. Nie było żadnego z trojga posłów Platformy, którzy też złożyli swój podpis, ani Ryszarda Kalisza z SLD, który przekazał wiadomość, że „podpisze jak przeczyta„.

Prawniczka Agnieszka Sieniawska szefowa Polskiej Sieci Polityki Narkotykowej, która mówi o sobie, że jest uzależniona od działania społecznego, opisała projekt w trzech głównych punktach.

1. Wartości graniczne

Nowelizacja ma wzmocnić słynny artykuł 62 a, który miał chronić przed postępowaniem karnym użytkowników złapanych z niewielką ilością zakazanych środków, ale nie chroni – policja wciąż zatrzymuje tysiące młodych ludzi z przysłowiowym jednym skrętem, a prokuratura kieruje sprawy do sądu, który wydaje wyroki (na ogół w zawieszeniu). To, co samo prawo określa jako nieszkodliwe użytkowanie, wciąż podlega kryminalizacji.

Dlatego chcemy dodać zapisu o wartościach granicznych, czyli dawkach poszczególnych narkotykach, które można uznać za „niewielkie ilości” – tłumaczyła Sieniawska. Odpowiednie tabele znalazłyby się w rozporządzeniu, które przygotują resorty sprawiedliwości i zdrowia. Chodzi o to, by to nie posłowie ale toksykolodzy czy terapeuci ustalali, jaką dawkę np. marihuany dopuścić (w Czechach to 15 g, w Niemczech i w Portugalii 30 g).

Zdaniem Sieniawskiej konkretny zapis zachęciłby prokuratorów do umarzania spraw, inaczej ryzykowaliby zaskarżanie decyzji o nieumorzeniu.

Sieniawska wyobraża to sobie tak: policja zatrzymuje dwudziestolatka z porcją marihuany, waży ją, stwierdza, że jest poniżej wartości granicznej, konfiskuje towar, zwalnia zatrzymanego i posyła informację prokuratorowi, który rutynowo umarza postępowanie.

Zdaniem Marka Balickiego, byłego ministra zdrowia i lekarza psychiatry, który wystąpił w roli eksperta, nowelizacja idzie w dobrym kierunku, ale jest zbyt ostrożna. Za konieczne uznał dekryminalizację posiadania nieznacznej ilości narkotyku, czyli zamianę kwalifikacji z przestępstwa na wykroczenia (powołał się tu na wtorkowy wywiad Aleksandra Kwaśniewskiego dla „Gazety”).

Przecież po nowelizacji nadal wobec zatrzymanego z jednym skrętem będą podejmowane czynności policyjne, które nie mają żadnego uzasadnienia i naruszają godność człowieka! Po co? – pytał.

2. Terapia zastępcza

Nowelizacja ma też ułatwić osobom uzależnionym od narkotyków, głównie opiatów (kokaina, heroina), dostęp do leczenia substytucyjnego. Dziś w Polsce z tej nowoczesnej formy korzysta ledwie 7-8 proc. uzależnionych, z tego połowa w Warszawie, a standard europejski to 60-80 proc.

W Polsce obowiązuje bowiem od 30 lat filozofia „drug free” Monaru: sposobem na wyjście z nałogu jest całkowita i natychmiastowa abstynencja. To nie działa, w abstynencji pozostaje nikły odsetek pacjentów. Po nowelizacji leczenie substytucyjne mógłby prowadzić lekarz psychiatra. Wydawałby po prostu receptę na metadon, a uzależniony dostawałby go w każdej aptece.

Balicki poparł te intencje, ale ostrzegł przed konserwatyzmem środowiska: lekarze ogarnięci są narkofobią czasem większą niż ogół społeczeństwa, dlatego np. rzadziej niż w innych krajach używają opiatów w uśmierzaniu bólu pacjentów. Aby zwiększyć skuteczność zapisu należałoby dać prawo wypisywania recept na substytut także lekarzom opieki podstawowej.

3. Metadon na receptę

Nowelizacja polegałaby na umożliwieniu medycznego zastosowania marihuany, co oznacza wykreślenie jej z załączonego do ustawy spisu substancji, których nie można stosować w leczeniu ludzi. Pacjenci mogliby też uprawiać konopie na użytek własny w celach medycznych określonych przez lekarza i pod kontrolą gminy.

Balicki zauważył absurd: dopuszcza się leczenie przy pomocy silnie uzależniających opiatów, a zabrania przy pomocy konopii, których potencjał uzależniający jest słaby, a według niektórych badaczy w ogóle nie występuje. Uznał to za sprzeczne z konstytucyjnym prawem do leczenia i za „zwyczajnie nieludzkie”.

Państwo odmawia przecież pomocy chorym na nowotwory (którzy w wyniku wyczerpującej chemioterapii cierpią m.in. na nudności), na stwardnienie rozsiane, na spastyczności itp. Są doniesienia, że składniki marihuany skutecznie leczą jaskrę, bo zmniejszają ciśnienie śródgałkowe, a badania na zwierzętach pokazują, że mogą hamować rozwój glejaka – groźnego nowotworu mózgu. Państwo nie ma prawa z irracjonalnych powodów stawiać tu barier, wręcz odwrotnie, jego obowiązkiem jest dążyć do ułatwiania korzystania z terapeutycznych właściwości marihuany.

Jak ich przekonać?

W połowie obrad na salę dotarła barwna grupa działaczy ruchu Wolne Konopie, niektórzy w koszulkach z napisem „3 krzaki, 30 g na własny użytek„. Za to posłowie jeden po drugim znikali kierując się do ważniejszych zadań. Działacze podziękowali Balickiemu i zaprosili go na sobotnią demonstrację w Warszawie. Pytali też, jak przekonać posłów, by zagłosowali za nowelizację. Mówili, że trudno będzie przekonać już samą marszałek Ewę Kopacz, lekarkę, by skierowała projekt pod obrady. Ta zagorzała nikotynistka wyraża skrajnie narkofobiczne poglądy, np. że marihuana uzależnia natychmiast, od jednego razu.

Balicki uznał, że najskuteczniejsze dziś może być propagowanie informacji, że świat odstępuje od „wojny z narkotykami” szukając pomysłu, jak skuteczniej leczyć i pomagać ludziom dotkniętym nałogiem. Przykłady Portugalii, Czech, a zwłaszcza Niemiec, mogą przekonać posłów, że zakaz i represja to pomysł z innej epoki.

Inną strategię zalecał obecny w Sejmie Michael Corral, założyciel pierwszego kolektywu pacjentów w USA, który wywalczył tam prawo do stosowania marihuany w celach medycznych. Jego zdaniem najlepiej rozdzielić aspekt medyczny od prawa karnego i najpierw domagać się zgody na zastosowania marihuany w leczeniu. Trudno byłoby bowiem posłom odrzucić wezwanie do ulitowania się nad cierpieniem chorych. Przy okazji można zwrócić uwagę na korzyści …finansowe.

W samej Kalifornii sprzedaż marihuany leczniczej osiągnęła miliard dolarów rocznie, a podatki z tego tytułu 400 milionów.

via: Gazeta Wyborcza



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